Combination Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 inhibitor therapy of murine orthotopic bladder cancer.

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) can be managed initially with transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. In carcinoma in situ (CIS) or papillary high-grade NMIBC patients, further intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is recommended for the prevention of recurrences. About 20% of patients suffer from BCG intolerance thereby limiting its use; up to 40% are BCG-refractory and face tumor recurrence despite initial BCG induction; finally there are BCG-resistant patients who respond to neither initial nor repeated BCG instillations [1].

BJU international. 2020 Aug 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Sze Han Lee, Ratha Mahendran, Sin Mun Tham, Thomas Paulraj Thamboo, Dorinda Yan Qin Kioh, Lloyd Wei Tat Tang, Edmund Chiong, Kesavan Esuvaranathan, Eric Chun Yong Chan

Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore., Department of Surgery, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 119074, Singapore., Department of Pathology, National University Hospital, Singapore, 119074, Singapore.