The updated outcomes of bladder-preserving trimodal therapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Bladder-preserving trimodal therapy is recognized as a promising alternative treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We report the updated outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients that were treated using our treatment protocol, which involves radiotherapy delivered with a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system.

Thirty-eight patients who were diagnosed with T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer between 1998 and 2016 and had clinically inoperable disease or refused to undergo surgery were enrolled. The treatment protocol included maximal transurethral resection followed by whole-bladder radiotherapy (40 Gy). Concurrent nedaplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to patients with adequate renal function. At the time of the first evaluation (via transurethral resection of the tumor bed), fiducial markers were endoscopically inserted into the bladder wall around the tumor. A boost of 25 Gy was administered using the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The second evaluation (via transurethral resection of the tumor bed) was performed 6 months after the start of treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox hazards analysis were used to analyze overall survival and cancer-specific survival.

The median duration of the follow-up period was 28 months (range: 3-161 months). The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 54.9 and 41.2%, respectively. Twenty-five (65.8%) and twenty (74.1%) patients had achieved complete responses to chemoradiation at the first and second evaluations, respectively. In univariate and multivariate analyses, performance status was found to be significantly associated with overall survival [P = 0.03, hazard ratio: 3.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-10.6] and cancer-specific survival [P = 0.02, hazard ratio: 4.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-16.9], and sex was shown to be significantly associated with cancer-specific survival [P = 0.03, hazard ratio: 3.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-8.30].

Our bladder-preserving trimodal therapy protocol, which involves the use of a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system, produced an acceptable overall survival rate. This therapy is a reasonable alternative for patients that are medically unfit for or do not want to undergo cystectomy.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2020 Jan 19 [Epub ahead of print]

Haruka Miyata, Takahiro Osawa, Takashige Abe, Hiroshi Kikuchi, Ryuji Matsumoto, Satoru Maruyama, Kentaro Nishioka, Shinichi Shimizu, Takayuki Hashimoto, Hiroki Shirato, Nobuo Shinohara

Department of Renal and Genitourinary Surgery, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan., Department of Radiation Medical Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan., Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan., Global Station for Quantum Biomedical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.