The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic molecular targets for selecting patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing bladder-preserving therapy. Pretreatment biopsy samples from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer receiving trimodality bladder-preserving therapy were analyzed for expression levels of p53, p16, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB; p65), E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11), programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1), and mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6) by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The correlations between these molecular markers with local progression-free survival (LPFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were explored. Biopsy samples from 41 out of 60 patients were evaluated using IHC. Univariate analysis revealed that the high expression of NFκB is associated with significantly worse LPFS, DMFS, and OS, and low expression of p16 is associated with significantly lower LPFS. Upon further multivariate analysis including sex, age, stage, and selected unfavorable factors in the model, NFκB and p16 independently remained significant. The investigational in vitro study demonstrated that irradiation induces up-regulation of NFκB signaling. Irradiated bladder cancer cells showed increased invasion capability and clonogenic survival; inhibition of NFκB signaling by an NFκB inhibitor, SC75741, or RNA interference reversed the observed increases. NFκB expression (p65) is associated with prognostic significance for both LPFS and DMFS in patients treated with bladder-preserving therapy, with consistent impact on cell viability of bladder cancer cells. NFκB may be a putative molecular target to help with outcome stratification.
Journal of clinical medicine. 2019 Nov 13*** epublish ***
Yun Chiang, Chung-Chieh Wang, Yu-Chieh Tsai, Chao-Yuan Huang, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Chia-Chi Lin, Jason Chia-Hsien Cheng
Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10002, Taiwan., Department of Pathology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10002, Taiwan., Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10002, Taiwan., Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10002, Taiwan.