Urothelial cancer is the second most common cancer, and cause of cancer death, related to the genitourinary tract. The goals of surveillance imaging after the treatment of urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder are to detect new or previously undetected urothelial tumors, to identify metastatic disease, and to evaluate for complications of therapy. For surveillance, patients can be stratified into one of three groups: (1) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with no symptoms or additional risk factors; (2) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with symptoms or additional risk factors; and (3) muscle invasive bladder cancer. This article is a review of the current literature for urothelial cancer and resulting recommendations for surveillance imaging. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR. 2019 Nov [Epub]
Expert Panel on Urologic Imaging , Brian C Allen, Aytekin Oto, Oguz Akin, Lauren F Alexander, Jaron Chong, Adam T Froemming, Pat F Fulgham, Shane Lloyd, Jodi K Maranchie, Rekha N Mody, Bhavik N Patel, Nicola Schieda, Ismail B Turkbey, Neha Vapiwala, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Carolyn L Wang, Don C Yoo, Mark E Lockhart
Panel Vice-Chair, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address: ., Panel Chair, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York., Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida., McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota., Urology Clinics of North Texas, Dallas, Texas, American Urological Association., Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah., UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, American Urological Association., Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio., Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California., Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and the Department of Radiology, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada., National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania., The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas., University of Washington, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, Washington., Rhode Island Hospital/The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island., Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.