Inflammatory reaction has been linked to bladder cancer (BCa). Diet drives systemic inflammation and may be considered a modifiable risk factor for BCa.
To examine the association between diet with pro-inflammatory potential and BCa risk using the novel empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score comprised of pre-defined food groups that determine a pattern most predictive of plasma inflammatory markers.
We followed 172,802 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2012) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2) (1991-2013), and 45,272 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) (1986-2012). Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BCa across quintiles (Q) of the EDIP score. We used inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis to pool estimates across cohorts and stratified by smoking status.
During 4,872,188 person-years of observation, 1,042 incident BCa cases were identified. Overall, high EDIP scores (reflecting dietary patterns with pro-inflammatory potential) were not associated with a higher risk of BCa (pooled multivariable-adjusted RR comparing Q5 vs. Q1: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.75, 1.12; ptrend=0.67). Results were consistent across individual cohorts (RRs; 95%CIs in Q5, Q1 in the NHS: 1.04; 0.78, 1.37, ptrend: 0.71; NHS2: 1.44; 0.53, 3.91; ptrend: 0.13 and HPFS: 0.74; 0.55, 1.01, ptrend: 0.11). Results were similar regardless of smoking status.
We did not observe an association between diets with pro-inflammatory potential and BCa risk. Though additional studies are needed to explore other nutritional pathways with potential for BCa prevention, our results suggest that diets associated with inflammation are not associated with BCa risk.
The Journal of urology. 2019 Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print]
Mohammad Abufaraj, Fred K Tabung, Shahrokh F Shariat, Marco Moschini, Elizabeth Devore, Kyriaki Papantoniou, Lin Yang, Susanne Strohmaier, Florian Rohrer, Sarah Coseo Markt, Xuehong Zhang, Edward Giovannucci, Eva Schernhammer
Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna , Vienna , Austria., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health., Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA., Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna , Austria.