To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) combined with intravesical chemotherapy (IC) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and identify the risk factors for recurrence and progression.
This is a retrospective cohort study of NMIBC patients in south China. Ninety-nine patients underwent IAC combined with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and IC, and 50 patients underwent TURBT plus IC without IAC. The 5-year outcomes of the two groups were compared. Cox regression was used to evaluate risk factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess the significant differences of recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival.
At 5 years, IAC significantly reduced the recurrence of high-grade NMIBC, 54.5% (18/33) in the non-IAC group vs 30.5% (18/59) in the IAC group (p = 0.028). IAC significantly reduced the recurrence of high-risk NMIBC, 56.3% (18/32) in the non-IAC group vs 26.1% (18/69) in the IAC group (p = 0.007). IAC significantly reduced the recurrence of intermediate-risk NMIBC, 44.4% (8/18) in the non-IAC group vs 22.2% (6/27) in the IAC group (p = 0.030). Tumors numbering from 2 to 7 had the highest recurrence rate (18.1%, 27/149). In this aspect, there was a significantly lower recurrence rate in the IAC group (30.8%, 12/30) than in the non-IAC group (68.2%, 15/22) (p = 0.007). No significant difference was found in the progression rate between the two groups. Only two cases (2/99, 2.0%) in the IAC group showed progression. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that the number of tumors, grade and risk level were risk factors for recurrence. No difference was found with respect to gender, age, tumor diameter, and T category. In the Kaplan-Meier plot, recurrence-free survival was significantly associated with treatment strategies (p < 0.01). Recurrence-free survival was shorter in the non-IAC group (12.73 ± 7.56 months) than in the IAC group (17.88 ± 12.26 months).
Combined IAC is a promising procedure to prevent recurrence and may be useful to suppress progression in NMIBC patients. The independent risk factors for the recurrence of NMIBC were multifocal tumors, grade and risk level. Intra-arterial chemotherapy is an effective and safe procedure and may be a promising choice in areas where BCG is not available or for patients who are intolerant to BCG.
Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 2019 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]
Fan Lian, Wenchuan Chen, Yiming Liu, Long Shen, Wenzhe Fan, Wei Cui, Yue Zhao, Jiaping Li, Yu Wang
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China., Department of Interventional Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China., Department of Interventional Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China. .