Early Complications and Mortality following Radical Cystectomy: Associations with Malnutrition and Obesity

There are conflicting data regarding the impact of obesity on postoperative outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) and how obesity and malnutrition interact in patients undergoing RC.

To evaluate associations of body mass index (BMI), significant preoperative weight loss, and hypoalbuminemia with 30-day complications and mortality after RC.

Review of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database identified 2,055 patients who underwent RC (2006-12). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess associations between hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), >10% preoperative weight loss, obesity as characterized by BMI (class I: 30-34.9, II: 35-39.9, III: ≥40 kg/m2), and 30-day complications and mortality.

The median BMI of the study cohort was 27.82 kg/m2 with 22.4% classified as having class I, 7.5% class II, and 4.2% class III obesity, respectively. Hypoalbuminemia and >10% weight loss were present in 16.7% and 3.5%, respectively. Among obese patients, 13.4% had hypoalbuminemia. On multivariable analysis, class I (OR 1.43, p = 0.01), class II (OR 1.92, p < 0.001), and class III (OR 2.32, p < 0.001) obesity and hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.47, p = 0.02) were independently associated with 30-day complications, and class III obesity (OR 2.96, p = 0.02) and hypoalbuminemia (OR 2.33, p = 0.03) were independently associated with 30-day mortality.

Increasing class of obesity and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with increased complications following RC. Hypoalbuminemia and class III obesity were associated with early mortality. This study highlights the fact that malnutrition may coexist in obese patients and underscores the need to identify patients with malnutrition who may be candidates for preoperative nutritional optimization.

Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2018 Oct 29*** epublish ***

Karan Arora, Kristine T Hanson, Elizabeth B Habermann, Matthew K Tollefson, Sarah P Psutka

Division of Urology, John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA., Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA., Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.