Blue light cystoscopy (BLC) using hexaminolevulinate (HAL/Cysview/Hexvix) has been previously shown to improve detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Herein, we evaluated the detection of malignant lesions in a heterogenous group of patients in the real world setting and documented the change in risk category due to upstaging or upgrading.
Prospective enrollment during April 2014 to December 2016 of consecutive adult patients with suspected or known non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer based on prior cystoscopy or imaging, undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor at 9 different referral medical centers. HAL was instilled in the bladder for 1 to 3 hours before evacuation and inspection. Sensitivity and specificity of BLC, white light cystoscopy (WLC), and the combination of both BLC and WLC for detection of any malignancy was reported on final pathology. Number of patients with a change in American Urological Association (AUA) risk category based on BLC findings leading to a possible change in management and adverse events were recorded.
Overall, 1,632 separate samples from bladder resection or biopsy were identified from 641 BLC procedures on 533 patients: 85 (16%) underwent repeat BLC (range: 2-5). Sensitivity of WLC, BLC, and the combination for diagnosis of any malignant lesion was 76%, 91%, and 98.5%, respectively. Addition of BLC to standard WLC increased detection rate by 12% for any papillary lesion and 43% for carcinoma in-situ. Within the WLC negative group, an additional 206 lesions in 133 (25%) patients were detected exclusively with BLC. In multifocal disease, BLC resulted in AUA risk-group migration occurred in 33 (6%) patients and a change in recommended management in 74 (14%). False-positive rate was 25% for WLC and 30% for BLC. One mild dermatologic hypersensitivity reaction (0.2%).
BLC increases detection rates of carcinoma in-situ and papillary lesions over WLC alone and can change management in 14% of cases. Repeat use of HAL for BLC is safe.
Urologic oncology. 2018 May 30 [Epub]
Siamak Daneshmand, Soroush T Bazargani, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein, Brian Willard, Jennifer M Taylor, Joseph C Liao, Kamal Pohar, James Tierney, Badrinath Konety, Blue Light Cystoscopy with Cysview Registry Group
Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: ., Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA., The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD., University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS., Carolina Urology Partners, Lexington, SC., Michael E. DeBakey VAMC, BCM, Houston, TX., VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA., Ohio State University, Columbus, OH., Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston, WV, USA., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.