Gender and Mortality after Radical Cystectomy: Competing Risk Analysis

Data on the impact of gender on mortality after radical cystectomy is conflicting. We investigated a large single center sample with long-term follow-up in order to determine the relationship between gender and outcome.

A total of 1,184 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy for high risk superficial or muscle-invasive urothelial or undifferentiated bladder cancer between 1993 and 2015 were stratified by gender. Demographic data was compared using Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, or Fisher exact test. Cox proportional hazard models were used for the analysis of competing risks and logit models were used for the prediction of the receipt of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

Female patients were older, healthier, less frequently current smokers and had more extravesical tumors. In the multivariate analyses, female gender was an independent predictor of (lower) non-bladder cancer (competing) mortality (hazards ratio [HR] 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.95, p = 0.0248) but no predictor of bladder cancer-specific mortality (HR in the full model 1.20, 95% CI 0.94-1.54, p = 0.15). Gender was no predictor of the receipt of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

Female gender was associated with an increased risk of extravesical disease but was no independent predictor of bladder cancer-specific mortality. Anatomical differences might be a plausible explanation for these observations.

Urologia internationalis. 2018 Aug 31 [Epub ahead of print]

Ulrike Heberling, Rainer Koch, Matthias Hübler, Gustavo B Baretton, Oliver W Hakenberg, Manfred P Wirth, Michael Froehner

Departments of Urology, Dresden, Germany., Departments of Medical Statistics and Biometry, Dresden, Germany., Departments of Anesthesiology, Dresden, Germany., Departments of Pathology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany., Department of Urology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.