Endoscopy coupled with targeted resections represents a cornerstone in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients with bladder cancer. Direct visualization can be challenging and imprecise due to patient-, tumor-, and surgeon-specific factors. We will review contemporary endoscopic technologies and techniques used to improve our ability to safely identify and resect malignant lesions in patients with bladder cancer.
Enhanced endoscopic imaging technology may improve detection rates for bladder cancer throughout the upper and lower urinary tract, which may lead to improvements in recurrence and progression rates for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). New techniques including narrow-band imaging (NBI), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and others have shown benefit and may further improve our ability to detect and stage bladder tumors. Enhanced endoscopy technologies have already demonstrated value in improving the sensitivity of bladder cancer detection and early results suggest they may improve short- and long-term oncologic outcomes.
Current urology reports. 2018 Aug 17*** epublish ***
Shane Pearce, Siamak Daneshmand
Institute of Urology, USC Keck/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. ., Institute of Urology, USC Keck/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.