Potential plasma biomarkers of bladder cancer identified by proteomic analysis: A pilot study

Bladder cancer diagnosis and surveillance includes cystoscopy and cytology. New methods for the detection of bladder cancer are needed, because cystoscopy is invasive and expensive, and because urine cytology is not sensitive enough.

The aim of the study was to select potential plasma protein markers for bladder cancer which could be useful in developing a specific laboratory test to improve diagnosis and to establish treatment strategies in order to prevent the recurrence of the disease.

Plasma proteome maps were prepared based on 2-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined with image gel analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry of plasma samples from patients with urothelial bladder cancer, and they were compared to normal samples.

The analyses of bladder cancer plasma samples allowed us to distinguish 3 groups of proteins whose relative abundance differed from that in normal samples. The 1st one comprised modified forms of plasma transferrin, fibrinogen gamma and complement C3b, which were absent in normal plasma. The 2nd group comprised haptoglobin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, vitamin D-binding protein, and pigment epithelium-derived factor, which occurred in the cancerous samples in large quantities. The 3rd group consisted of 3 molecular forms of immunoglobulin M (IgM), the relative abundance of which was significantly lower in the cancerous plasma samples.

The data indicated potential plasma biomarkers associated with inflammation, immunity and coagulation processes accompanying bladder cancer. They could be used for the development of a laboratory test(s) useful in clinical practice.

Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University. 2018 Jul 02 [Epub ahead of print]

Anna Lemańska-Perek, Jolanta Lis-Kuberka, Adam Lepczyński, Alicja Dratwa-Chałupnik, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Iwona Kątnik-Prastowska, Małgorzata Ożgo

Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland., Department of Physiology, Cytobiology and Proteomics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland., Department of Urology and Oncologic Urology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.