Accurate detection and staging is critical to the appropriate management of urothelial cancer (UC). The use of advanced optical techniques during cystoscopy is becoming more widespread to prevent recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Standard of care for muscle-invasive UC includes the use of computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, but staging accuracy of these tests remains imperfect. Novel imaging modalities are being developed to improve current test performance. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography has a role in the initial evaluation of select patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and in disease recurrence in some cases. Several novel immuno-positron emission tomography tracers are currently in development to address the inadequacy of current imaging modalities for monitoring of tumor response to newer immune-based treatments. This review summaries the current standards and recent advances in optical techniques and imaging modalities in localized and metastatic UC.
Urologic oncology. 2017 Dec 26 [Epub ahead of print]
Tracy L Rose, Yair Lotan
Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.