Urinary tract infections following radical cystectomy with enhanced recovery protocol: A prospective study.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) following radical cystectomy (RC) is a common complication associated with significant morbidity and risk of readmission. Recent literature has assessed the effect of perioperative antibiotic regimens on the rate of postoperative infections but not yet yielded with significant changes in UTI rates.

Our study focused on the effect of postoperative suppressive regimens on the rate of UTI following radical cystectomy with Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol.

We retrospectively reviewed 427 patients who underwent RC with ERAS protocol between May 2012 and January 2017 at our institution. The ERAS protocol infection prevention measures included 24-hr perioperative antibiotic followed by suppressive antibiotic until removal of catheter/stents. A patient was found to have a UTI if they had a positive urine culture and documented symptoms, positive urine culture with treatment per practitioner discretion, or negative or unavailable urine culture but the clinical presumption of UTI that got treatment. Urosepsis was defined if any of UTI episodes were associated with positive blood culture. Patients' characteristics, UTI events, and urine culture sensitivities were reviewed for analysis.

The incidence of UTI and urosepsis was 36.1% and 7.13% within 90-days following RC, respectively. The median time to the first UTI was 13 days (IQR 8-35). Candida (25.57%) and Escherichia coli (22.16%) were the most commonly identified pathogens. UTI and urosepsis were significantly lower in patients who received suppressive fluoroquinolones compared to other antibiotic regimens (32.72% vs. 45.24%, P = 0.04 for UTI and 5.25% vs. 11.90%, P = 0.04 for urosepsis). In multivariable analysis, orthotopic neobladder and perioperative transfusion were significantly associated with increased UTI rate (OR = 2.3 and 1.71, p < 0.05, respectively).

UTI is common following RC and urinary diversion with ERAS protocol. The most common isolated pathogens are candida and Escherichia coli. Orthotopic neobladder and perioperative transfusion are independent risk factors for postoperative UTI. The use of suppressive fluoroquinolones is associated with a significant decrease in UTI rate.

Urologic oncology. 2020 Jan 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Alireza Ghoreifi, Christine M Van Horn, Willem Xu, Jie Cai, Gus Miranda, Sumeet Bhanvadia, Anne K Schuckman, Siamak Daneshmand, Hooman Djaladat

Institute of Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA., Institute of Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: .

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