A common health-care problem worldwide, urinary tract infection (UTI), represents a disease of significant impact on every country's economy, being the most common cause of hospitalization among elderly people and the most common cause of antibiotic prescription in primary care. Diagnosing and managing upper and lower UTI have always been a challenge to physicians, given its high prevalence, risk of recurrence and improper treatment, and the fact of worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, necessitating implementation of a proper antibiotic stewardship. Urinary infections are twice more likely to occur in females compared to males and its prevalence increases with increasing age. The following is a comprehensive review paper about UTI in females, discussing the various factors leading to a complicated infection. The various etiologies and microbiologies of UTI are also highlighted. In addition to various usual antibiotic regimens for treating UTI, a significant number of nonantimicrobial treatment modalities are highlighted and described in this manuscript, including the novel use of intravesical antibiotics and vaccines for suppression treatment. Finally, a pathway is suggested for the proper diagnosis and treatment that ensures antibiotic stewardship in order to decrease long-term complications.
Urology annals. 0000 Jan [Epub]
Nassib F Abou Heidar, Jad A Degheili, Aline A Yacoubian, Raja B Khauli
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, American University of Beirut - Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020, Beirut, Lebanon.