Background: Gram-positive cocci have emerged to be an important cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) both in community-acquired UTI (Com-UTI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of Gram-positive cocci urinary tract infections, their susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobial agents and the biofilm forming property with respect to catheter-associated UTI and community-acquired UTI. Methods: A total of 1,360 urine samples from indwelling catheter and 10,423 from mid-stream urine were obtained during a 6-month period and processed following standard microbiological guidelines. Biofilm formation was detected using congo red agar (CRA), tube method (TM) and tissue culture plate (TCP) method. Chi-square test and independent sample t-test were employed to calculate the significance. Statistical significance was set at P-value ≤0.05. Results: The infection rate was significantly higher in CA-UTI as compared to Com-UTI (25% vs 18%, p=0.0001). Among 2,216 organisms isolated, 471 were Gram-positive cocci; 401 were obtained from Com-UTI while 70 were from CA-UTI. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common organism isolated from Com-UTI, while Staphylococcus aureus was commonest among CA-UTI. Multi-drug resistance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci were also significantly higher in CA-UTI as compared to Com-UTI. Biofilm-forming property was significantly higher in CA-UTI than Com-UTI. The sensitivity of congo red agar method and tube method was 79% and 81.9% respectively and specificity was 98.5% each. Antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher in biofilm-formers as compared to non-formers. Conclusion: Gram-positive bacteria are a significant cause of both CA-UTI and Com-UTI with Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus as common pathogen. Biofilm formation and multi-drug resistance is significantly higher in CA-UTI than Com-UTI. Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation is necessary in all cases of UTI to ensure the proper management of patients.
Infection and drug resistance. 2019 Apr 23*** epublish ***
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Ratna Baral, Basudha Khanal
Department of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Sunsari 56700, Nepal.