Sacral nerve stimulation for refractory OAB and idiopathic urinary retention: Can phenotyping improve the outcome for patients: ICI-RS 2019?

Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is widely used to treat refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) and idiopathic urinary retention. However, clinical outcomes are variable and understanding predictive factors for success or side-effects would enable personalization of therapy and optimization of outcomes. At the International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society meeting 2019, a Think Tank was convened to discuss how advances in the basic science study of SNS may be translatable into clinical practice to improve outcomes of patients undergoing SNS treatment.

We conducted a literature review and expert consensus meeting focusing on current methods of phenotyping patients and specifically, how advances in basic science research of the mechanism of action of SNS can be translated into clinical practice to improve patient selection for therapy.

The terms "Idiopathic OAB" and "idiopathic urinary retention" encompass several underlying pathophysiological phenotypes. Commonly, phenotyping is based on clinical and urodynamic factors. Animal studies have demonstrated that high-frequency stimulation can produce rapid onset, reversible conduction block in peripheral nerves. Altering stimulation parameters may potentially enable personalization of therapy depending upon the clinical indication in the future. Similarly, advances in conditional and closed-loop stimulation may offer greater efficacy for certain patients. Phenotyping based on psychological comorbidity requires further study to potentially optimize patient selection for therapy.

Idiopathic OAB and idiopathic urinary retention are heterogenous conditions with multiple potential underlying phenotypes. Tailoring stimulation parameters to the needs of each individual according to phenotype could optimize outcomes. Assessing psychological comorbidity may improve patient selection. Areas for further research are proposed.

Neurourology and urodynamics. 2020 Jul [Epub]

Sachin Malde, Tom Marcelissen, Desiree Vrijens, Apostolos Apostilidis, Sajjad Rahnama'I, Linda Cardozo, Thelma Lovick

Department of Urology, Guy's Hospital, London, UK., Department of Urology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece., Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK., School of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

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