Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a painful and debilitating clinical entity which is challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Unfortunately, none of the existing oral and intravesical medications have been established as effective and therefore relevant research is ongoing. Areas covered: In this review, the authors present established and emerging treatment options for IC/BPS in terms of medication and minimal invasive procedures. Both American and European Urological Association Guidelines recommend multimodal behavioral techniques alongside oral (e.g. amitriptyline and pentosan polysulfate sodium) or minimally invasive treatments (e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide, botulinum toxin, chondroitin sulfate, triamcinolone, hyaluronic acid, and lidocaine). Novel treatment modalities include immunomodulating drugs, stem cell therapy, nerve growth factor, and ASP6294. Expert opinion: IC/BPS is still a pathophysiological enigma with multifactorial etiopathogenesis that may be controlled but not completely cured. Patient-tailored phenotype-directed multimodal therapy is the most promising treatment strategy. Combined phenotypic categorization with specific biomarkers could help toward better treatment.
Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2018 Aug 03 [Epub ahead of print]
Athanasios E Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris
a 2nd Department of Surgery, Aretaieion Academic Hospital, School of Medicine , National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , Athens , Greece., c 2nd Department of Urology, Sismanogleion General Hospital, School of Medicine , National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , Athens , Greece.