Diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era

We reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcomes of prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era, focusing on how patient risk factors and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms influence management of the condition. A MEDLINE search for "prostate abscess" or "prostatic abscess" was carried out. Prostate abscess is no longer considered a consequence of untreated urinary infection; now, men with prostatic abscess are typically debilitated or immunologically compromised, with >50% of patients having diabetes. In younger men, prostatic abscess can be the initial presentation of such chronic conditions. In older men, prostatic abscess is increasingly a complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate biopsy. Diagnosis is based on a physical examination, leukocytosis, leukocyturia and transrectal ultrasound, with magnetic resonance imaging serving as the preferred confirmatory imaging modality. Treatment of prostatic abscess is changing as a result of the emergence of atypical and drug-resistant organisms, such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. As many as 75% of infections are resistant to first-generation antibiotics, necessitating aggressive therapy with broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics, such as third-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam or antibiotic combinations. A total of 80% of patients require early surgical drainage, frequently through a transurethral approach. In the post-antibiotic era, prostatic abscess is evolving from an uncommon complication of urinary infection to a consequence of immunodeficiency, growing antibiotic resistance and urological manipulation. This condition, primarily affecting patients with chronic medical conditions rendering them susceptible to atypical, drug-resistant organisms, requires prompt aggressive intervention with contemporary antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage.

International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. 2017 Sep 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Anne Lenore Ackerman, Pooja S Parameshwar, Jennifer T Anger

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.