BACKGROUND: The assessment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in everyday practice and clinical studies relies on National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scores for symptom appraisal, inclusion criteria for clinical trials, follow-up, and response evaluation.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated multiple databases of CP/CPPS patients to determine the prevalence and impact of pain locations and types to improve our strategy of individualized phenotypically guided treatment.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Four major databases with CPSI scores for nonselected CP/CPPS clinic patients from Canada, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Individual question scores and subtotal and total scores of CPSI were described and correlated with each other. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to define pain severity categories.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 1563 CP/CPPS patients were included. Perineal pain/discomfort was the most prevalent pain symptom (63%) followed by testicular pain (58%), pain in the pubic area (42%) and penis (32%); reports of pain during ejaculation and voiding were 45% and 43%, respectively. European patients had a significantly higher number of pain localizations and symptoms compared with North American patients (p< 0.001). Severity of pain correlated well with frequency of pain (r=0.645). No specific pain localization/type was associated with more severe pain. Correlation of pain domain with quality of life (QoL) (r=0.678) was higher than the urinary domain (r=0.320). Individually, pain severity (r=0.627) and pain frequency (r=0.594) correlated better with QoL than pain localization (r=0.354). Pain severity categories results for NIH-CPSI item 4 (0-10 numerical rating scale for average pain) were mild, 0-3; moderate, 4-6; severe, 7-10; CPSI pain domain (0-21): mild, 0-7; moderate, 8-13; and severe, 14-21.
CONCLUSIONS: Pain has more impact on QoL than urinary symptoms. Pain severity and frequency are more important than pain localization/type. Cut-off levels for disease severity categories have been identified that will prove valuable in symptom assessment and the development of therapeutic strategies.
Wagenlehner FM, van Till JW, Magri V, Perletti G, Houbiers JG, Weidner W, Nickel JC. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
Reference: Eur Urol. 2012 Nov 2. pii: S0302-2838(12)01273-0.
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