Hypogonadism is a growing concern in an aging male population. Historically treated using exogenous testosterone, concerns about possible adverse effects of testosterone have led physicians to seek alternative treatment approaches.
Enclomiphene citrate is the trans isomer of clomiphene citrate, a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that is FDA-approved for the treatment of ovarian dysfunction in women. Clomiphene citrate has also been used off-label for many years to treat secondary male hypogonadism, particularly in the setting of male infertility. Here we review the literature examining the efficacy and safety of enclomiphene citrate in the setting of androgen deficiency.
Initial results support the conclusion that enclomiphene citrate increases serum testosterone levels by raising luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, without negatively impacting semen parameters. The ability to treat testosterone deficiency in men while maintaining fertility supports a role for enclomiphene citrate in the treatment of men in whom testosterone therapy is not a suitable option.
Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2016 Jun 23 [Epub ahead of print]
Katherine M Rodriguez, Alexander W Pastuszak, Larry I Lipshultz
a Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , TX., b Center for Reproductive Medicine , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , TX., b Center for Reproductive Medicine , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , TX.