IMPORTANCE: Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in patients with urinary catheters remains high.
Health care professionals have difficulty differentiating cases of ASB from catheter-associated urinary tract infections.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of an intervention to reduce urine culture ordering and antimicrobial prescribing for catheter-associated ASB compared with standard quality improvement methods.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A preintervention and postintervention comparison with a contemporaneous control group from July 2010 to June 2013 at 2 Veterans Affairs health care systems. Study populations were patients with urinary catheters on acute medicine wards and long-term care units and health care professionals who order urine cultures and prescribe antimicrobials.
INTERVENTION: A multifaceted guidelines implementation intervention.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomes were urine cultures ordered per 1000 bed-days and cases of ASB receiving antibiotics (overtreatment) during intervention and maintenance periods compared with baseline at both sites. Patient-level analysis of inappropriate antimicrobial use adjusted for individual covariates.
RESULTS: Study surveillance included 289 754 total bed-days. The overall rate of urine culture ordering decreased significantly during the intervention period (from 41.2 to 23.3 per 1000 bed-days; incidence rate ration [IRR], 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53-0.61) and further during the maintenance period (to 12.0 per 1000 bed-days; IRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.26-0.32) (P < .001 for both). At the comparison site, urine cultures ordered did not change significantly across all 3 periods. There was a significant difference in the number of urine cultures ordered per month over time when comparing the 2 sites using longitudinal linear regression (P < .001). Overtreatment of ASB at the intervention site fell significantly during the intervention period (from 1.6 to 0.6 per 1000 bed-days; IRR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22-0.55), and these reductions persisted during the maintenance period (to 0.4 per 1000 bed-days; IRR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13-0.42) (P < .001 for both). Overtreatment of ASB at the comparison site was similar across all periods (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, o.69-2.52). When analyzed by type of ward, the decrease in ASB overtreatment was significant in long-term care.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A multifaceted intervention targeting health care professionals who diagnose and treat patients with urinary catheters reduced overtreatment of ASB compared with standard quality improvement methods. These improvements persisted during a low-intensity maintenance period. The impact was more pronounced in long-term care, an emerging domain for antimicrobial stewardship.
Trautner BW, Grigoryan L, Petersen NJ, Hysong S, Cadena J, Patterson JE, Naik AD. Are you the author?
Houston Veterans Affairs Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas; Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital, San Antonio; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
Reference: JAMA Intern Med. 2015 May 26. Epub ahead of print.