INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) predisposes to urinary tract infections (UTIs); however, there is scarce local information regarding such association.
Our objectives were to estimate IH prevalence in children with UTI and to assess whether there were differences in relation to the presence or absence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Additionally, the association between IH and salt intake was studied.
POPULATION AND METHODS: Calciuria was determined in patients younger than 18 years old on whom UTI had been studied (ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram), and who had no secondary causes of hypercalciuria. IH was defined as a calcium to creatinine ratio of >0.8, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.2 in children aged 0 to 6 months old, 7 to12 months old, 12 to 24 months old and older than 2 years old, respectively; and a high sodium intake with a urinary sodium to potassium ratio of >2.5.
RESULTS: IH prevalence among 136 patients (87 girls, median age: 3 years old) was 20%. Patients with VUR (n= 54) and without VUR (n= 82) had similar characteristics in terms of sex, weight, height, age at diagnosis and age at the time of the study, and clinical features (hematuria, nephrolithiasis, colicky pain, and recurrent UTI), family history of kidney stone formation, and IH prevalence (26% versus 16%, p= 0.24). A high sodium intake was more frequently observed in children with hypercalciuria than in those with normal urine calcium levels (76% versus 46%, p= 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: IH prevalence in children with UTI was high (20%), with no differences observed between patients with and without VUR. As a recommendation, the presence of IH should be detected in children with UTI, regardless of VUR presence or absence.
Balestracci A, Battaglia LM, Toledo I, Martin SM, Wainsztein RE. Are you the author?
Unidad de Nefrología, Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.
Reference: Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014 Oct;112(5):428-33.
Article in English, Spanish.