BACKGROUND: We examined the ability of a procalcitonin (PCT) protocol to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring (RS), evaluated procedural costs and radiation burden, and compared four representative guidelines for children with their first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).
METHODS: Children aged ≤ 2 years with their first febrile UTI who underwent renal ultrasonography (US), acute and late technetium-99m (99mTc)-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, and voiding cystourethrography were prospectively studied. The representative guidelines applied in a retrospective simulation included the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), National Institute of Clinical Excellence, top-down approach (TDA), and Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology (ISPN). These were compared in terms of ability to detect abnormalities, procedural costs and radiation.
RESULTS: Of 278 children analyzed, 172 (61.9 %) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR in 101 (36.3 %) children, including 73 (26.3 %) with grades III-V VUR. RS was identified in 75 (27.0 %) children. To detect VUR, TDA and PCT had the highest sensitivity for grades I-V VUR (80.2 %) and III-V VUR (94.5 %), respectively, whereas AAP had the highest specificity for I-V VUR (77.4 %) and III-V VUR (78.0 %), respectively. TDA and PCT had the highest sensitivity (100 %) for detecting RS. The highest cost and radiation dose was associated with TDA, whereas AAP had the least expenditure and radiation exposure. By multivariate analysis, PCT and VUR, especially grades III-V, were independent predictors of RS.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no perfect guideline for first febrile UTI children. The PCT protocol has good ability for detecting high-grade VUR and RS. If based on available imaging modalities and reducing cost and radiation burden, clinical suggestions in the AAP guidelines represent a considerable protocol.
Liao PF, Ku MS, Tsai JD, Choa YH, Hung TW, Lue KH, Sheu JN. Are you the author?
Department of Pediatrics, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, No. 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung, 402, Taiwan.
Reference: Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Mar 20. Epub ahead of print.
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