Induction and Maintenance Adjuvant Mitomycin C Topical Therapy for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: Tolerability and Intermediate Term Outcomes

Endoscopic management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is associated with higher recurrences, which could be reduced by application of topical therapy. Adjuvant induction Bacillus Calmette-Guerin has shown inferior outcomes for UTUC compared to bladder cancer, and maintenance regimens for UTUC are unexplored. We report on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of Mitomycin C (MMC) induction and maintenance adjuvant topical therapy for UTUC.

Patients with UTUC who received adjuvant topical therapy after complete endoscopic control of Ta/T1 tumors were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were treated using percutaneous nephrostomy tube (NT) or cystoscopically placed weekly ureteral catheters, per patient preference, and all patients were offered induction and maintenance. Standardized follow-up of every 3 months in the first year, then at a minimum every 6 months, with ureteroscopy and at least annual CT, was performed. Primary outcomes were recurrence-free, progression-free, nephroureterectomy-free rate and cancer-specific and overall survival. Secondary outcomes were safety and treatment tolerability.

Twenty-seven patients with 28 renal units received adjuvant topical therapy from January 2008 to March 2015. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 7-92). Three year recurrence-free, progression-free, and nephroureterectomy-free survival rates were 60% [confidence interval (95% CI): 42, 86%], 80% [95% CI: 64, 100%], and 76% [95% CI: 60, 97%]. Cancer-specific mortality rate was 0%, and 3-year overall survival was 92.9%. Nine patients experienced adverse outcomes, all related to interventions and none related to systemic toxicity.

Induction and maintenance adjuvant topical MMC for endoscopically resected UTUC is feasible, well tolerated and shows promising intermediate term data on recurrence, progression, and nephroureterectomy-free survival.

Journal of endourology. 2017 Jul 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Michael Metcalfe, Gavin Wagenheim, Lianchun Xiao, John Papadopoulos, Neema Navai, John W Davis, Jose A Karam, Ashish M Kamat, Christopher G Wood, Colin P Dinney, Surena F Matin

1 Department of Urology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas , Houston, Texas., 3 Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas , Houston, Texas.