To provide an overview of treatment modalities for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).
In accordance with the standards for a scoping review, data presentation and discussion at the Consultation on UTUC in Stockholm, 6-7 September 2018, consensus was reached on the latest and most important treatment recommendations for UTUC. Using Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase, publications were selected based on quality, clinical relevance, and level of evidence.
Kidney-sparing surgery should be attempted for low-grade UTUC. Radical nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision is first option for high-grade disease. Post-operative bladder instillation of chemotherapy should be offered after RNU to reduce intravesical recurrence rate. Identification of tumor grade and stage is crucial when selecting treatment. Ureteroscopic management of low-grade and non-invasive UTUC achieves disease-free survival similar to that offered by radical nephroureterectomy but seems to be a risk factor for intravesical recurrence. Lymphadenectomy appears important for high-risk disease, although the therapeutic benefit needs further validation. There is little evidence supporting use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and mitomycin C as monotherapy and adjuvant treatment in UTUC. A randomized clinical trial has indicated that platin-based chemotherapy for invasive UTUC improves disease-free survival, suggesting that adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered standard care for ≥ T2 N0-3M0 disease.
Risk stratification assessment is feasible and mandatory in UTUC. Identification of tumor grade and stage is essential for optimal treatment selection. Kidney-sparing surgery should be offered in low-risk disease, whereas radical nephroureterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered in high-risk disease.
World journal of urology. 2019 May 23 [Epub ahead of print]
Helene Jung, Guido Giusti, Harun Fajkovic, Thomas Herrmann, Robert Jones, Michael Straub, Joyce Baard, Palle Jörn Sloth Osther, Marianne Brehmer
Department of Urology, Urological Research Center, Lillebaelt Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle, Denmark., Department of Urology, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Ville Turro Division, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Frauenfeld, Frauenfeld, Switzerland., Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK., Department of Urology, University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany., Department of Urology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Division of Urology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. .