Characterize the mutational landscape across the spectrum of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to identify mutational features and potential therapeutic targets.
Using targeted exome sequencing (n=237 genes), we analyzed the mutation spectra of 82 low-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (LG-NMIBC), 126 high-grade (HG) NMIBC, 199 muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBC), 10 LG-upper tract urothelial cancers (LG-UTUC), and 55 HG-UTUC.
FGFR3 and KDM6A mutations were significantly more common in LG-NMIBC (72% and 44%, respectively) versus other bladder subtypes. FGFR3 alterations were also enriched in LG-UTUC versus HG-UTUC tumors (80% versus 16%). In contrast, TP53 and RB1 mutations were significantly more frequent in all 3 HG UC subtypes than in LG-NIMBC (45-58% vs. 4%; 9-22% vs. 0; respectively). Among LG-NMIBC tumors, KDM6A mutations were more common in women than in men (71% versus 38%). HG-NMIBC and MIBC had higher tumor mutational burden (TMB) than LG-NMIBC (p=0.001, p<0.01, respectively). DNA-damage repair (DDR) alterations were associated with a higher TMB in HG-NMIBC and MIBC tumors, and these two tumor types were also enriched for an APOBEC mutational signature compared to LG-NMIBC and HG-UTUC. Alterations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, and EP300 correlated with worse overall survival in HG-UTUC, and occurred concurrently.
Our analysis suggests that a fraction of MIBCs likely arise from precursor lesions other than LG-NMIBC. KDM6A mutations are twice as common in women with LG-NIMBC than men. DDR gene mutations and APOBEC mutagenesis drive mutations in HG-NMIBC and MIBC. UTUC has a distinct mutation profile from bladder cancer.
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2018 Dec 28 [Epub ahead of print]
Amin H Nassar, Renato Umeton, Jaegil Kim, Kevin Lundgren, Lauren C Harshman, Eliezer M Van Allen, Mark A Preston, Fei Dong, Joaquim Bellmunt, Kent W Mouw, Toni K Choueiri, Guru Sonpavde, David J Kwiatkowski
Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital., Informatics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute., Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard., Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber Harvard Cancer Center., Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School., Dana-Farber Cancer Institute., Urology, Brigham and Women's Hospital., Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital., IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute)., Radiation Oncology, Brigham & Women's Hospital / Dana-Farber Cancer Institute., Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Harvard Cancer Center., Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital .