Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common solid organ malignancy among young men at their peak of family life, education, and career.
The exceptionally high cure rates are hampered by an increased risk of several treatment-related toxicities that may emerge several years after treatment. In this article, we review the current knowledge regarding pulmonary and cardiovascular toxicity in long-term survivors of TC. Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity is associated with the cumulative bleomycin dose, renal function, age and smoking status and can be avoided by a careful patient evaluation before chemotherapy. Lung function assessments are not routinely recommended for detecting bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Long-term decreased pulmonary function may also be related to other chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin. Cardiovascular disease represents one of the most serious late effects of cytotoxic treatment in TC survivors and typically appears several years to decades after treatment. The increased risk for cardiovascular disease is probably mediated by a direct vascular damage from cytotoxic treatment that may stimulate the endothelium, possibly ultimately inducing the atherosclerotic process, as well as an indirect cytotoxic effect by increasing the levels of cardiovascular risk factors. Follow-up of these cancer survivors should include recommendations for maintaining a healthy lifestyle to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events and to avoid declining pulmonary function.
Haugnes HS, Oldenburg J, Bremnes RM. Are you the author?
Department of Oncology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Reference: Urol Oncol. 2014 Dec 29. pii: S1078-1439(14)00401-3.