Plasma Kidney Injury Molecule-1 for Preoperative Prediction of Renal Cell Carcinoma Versus Benign Renal Masses, and Association With Clinical Outcomes.

Both clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) overexpress kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). We investigated whether plasma KIM-1 (pKIM-1) may be a useful risk stratification tool among patients with suspicious renal masses.

Prenephrectomy pKIM-1 was measured in two independent cohorts of patients with renal masses. Cohort 1, from the prospective K2 trial, included 162 patients found to have clear cell RCC (cases) and 162 patients with benign renal masses (controls). Cohort 2 included 247 patients with small (cT1a) renal masses from an academic biorepository, of whom 184 had RCC. We assessed the relationship between pKIM-1, surgical pathology, and clinical outcomes.

In Cohort 1, pKIM-1 distinguished RCC versus benign masses with area under the receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.76 to 0.86]). In Cohort 2 (cT1a only), pKIM-1 distinguished RCC versus benign masses (AUC-ROC, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.80]) and the addition of pKIM-1 to an established nomogram for predicting malignancy improved the model AUC-ROC (0.65 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.74] v 0.78 [95% CI, 0.72 to 0.85]). A pKIM-1 cutpoint identified using Cohort 2 demonstrated sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 60% for identifying RCC in Cohort 1. In long-term follow-up of RCC cases (Cohort 1), higher prenephrectomy pKIM-1 was associated with worse metastasis-free survival (multivariable MFS hazard ratio [HR] 1.29 per unit increase in log pKIM-1, 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.53) and overall survival (multivariable OS HR 1.31 per unit increase in log pKIM-1, 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.54). In long-term follow-up of Cohort 2, no metastatic events occurred, consistent with the favorable prognosis of resected cT1a RCC.

Among patients with renal masses, pKIM-1 is associated with malignant pathology, worse MFS, and risk of death. pKIM-1 may be useful for selecting patients with renal masses for intervention versus surveillance.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2024 May 03 [Epub ahead of print]

Wenxin Xu, Valerie Gaborieau, Samuel M Niman, Anush Mukeria, Xiaowen Liu, Krishna P Maremanda, Ayumi Takakura, David Zaridze, Matthew L Freedman, Wanling Xie, David F McDermott, Toni K Choueiri, Paul J Catalano, Venkata Sabbisetti, Joseph V Bonventre, Phillip M Pierorazio, Nirmish Singla, Paul Brennan, Rupal S Bhatt

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA., International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France., N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Centre of Oncology, Moscow, Russia., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA., Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA., Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.