Comparison of aggressiveness in central versus peripheral T1a clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

This study aimed to estimate the difference between peripheral and central small renal lesions in terms of their oncologic potential.

Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of patients with small renal masses (T1a) who underwent surgical treatment between January 2008 and July 2019 at the affiliated hospital.

Only patients with ccRCC pathology were included. Cases were divided into 2 groups depending on tumor location (central or peripheral) based on the R.E.N.A.L and local nephrometry scoring. Presence of nodal involvement, distant metastases, ISUP grade and endophytic growth were defined as aggressiveness predictors. Statistical analyses was performed using a standard statistical software (IBM SPPS Statistics Ver. 22), with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Associations between tumor location and Fuhrman grade, exo-/endophytic growth, TNM classification, and type of operation were tested using the Pearson χ² test and 1-way ANOVA test.

Patients with centrally located tumors had a higher incidence of clinical and pathological lymph node involvement (P = 0.02, χ2 = 5.1). Patients in both groups had an equal number of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.3, χ2 = 0.8). The operation time was significantly longer in patients with central lesions, which obviously showed higher tumor complexity in this group (P < 0.005). Pathological evaluation revealed differences between ISUP grades in both groups (P < 0.005, χ2 = 29.9). Central masses were characterized by higher aggressiveness, indicating a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the cases in the first group were more often endophytic (P = 0.03, χ2 = 0.9). Nevertheless, this did not affect the surgical strategy in most cases with a tendency toward partial nephrectomy. Eventually, organ-sparing treatment was preferable in both groups (P = 0.13, χ2 = 2.29).

Centrally located kidney cancer has showed in present study a higher incidence of high ISUP grade, regional nodal involvement and endophytic growth type. Endophytic growth type was associated with worse ISUP grading. Distribution of ISUP grade was not age depended, thus showing no difference by this criterion, when comparing different age groups. Higher ISUP grade was strongly associated with presence of distant metastases in T1a kidney tumors. Further analysis is needed to investigate aggressiveness of centrally located T1a RCC, as it may influence current conservative management options.

Urologic oncology. 2023 Dec 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Sofiya L Semko, Oleg A Voylenko, Maksym V Pikul, Oleksandr E Stakhovskyi, Oleksii A Kononenko, Iurii V Vitruk, Eduard O Stakhovsky, Bohdan Hrechko

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Oncological Urology, National Cancer Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine. Electronic address: ., Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Oncological Urology, National Cancer Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.

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