Surgical Metastasectomy in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

The benefit of surgical metastasectomy (SM) for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) remains controversial because of the lack of high-level evidence on the role of SM in terms of survival benefit in the era of systemic therapy.

To perform a systematic review of the literature on the role of SM in the treatment of mRCC and discuss key issues in the SM decision-making process.

A systematic search of the Embase and Medline databases was carried out and a systematic review of the role of SM in mRCC was performed. A total of 56 studies were finally included in the evidence synthesis.

All the studies included were retrospective and mostly noncomparative. Median overall survival (OS) ranged from 36 to 142mo for those undergoing SM, compared to 8-27mo for no SM. SM was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to no SM (pooled adjusted hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 2.03-2.87; p<0.001). Morbidity and mortality were similar for SM and primary tumor surgery. The most important prognostic factor for OS was complete resection of metastases. Other prognostic factors included disease free-survival from nephrectomy, primary tumor features (T stage ≥3, high grade, sarcomatoid features, and pathological nodal status), the number of metastases, and performance status. Lung metastasectomy seemed to show the best survival benefit.

Although no randomized clinical data are available, published studies support the role of SM in selected patients in the modern era. Complete SM allows sustained survival free of systemic treatment. Integration of SM and systemic therapy in a multimodal approach remains a valid option for some patients.

Surgical resection of metastases originating from renal cell carcinoma may play a role in prolonging survival and avoiding systemic therapy when complete resection is achievable. This strategy is an option for selected patients with a limited number of metastases who still have good general health status.

European urology oncology. 2018 Sep 24 [Epub]

Idir Ouzaid, Umberto Capitanio, Michael Staehler, Christopher G Wood, Bradley C Leibovich, Börje Ljungberg, Hendrik Van Poppel, Karim Bensalah, Young Academic Urologists Kidney Cancer Working Group of the European Association of Urology

Department of Urology, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France., Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany., Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA., Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA., Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden., Department of Urology, University Hospitals of KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium., Department of Urology, University of Rennes, Rennes, France.