The treatment of metastatic clear cell renal cancer is changing rapidly, with the focus switching from vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapies to immune checkpoint inhibitors and novel combinations. Specifically, recent data with programmed death ligand inhibitors is revolutionizing the standard approach to metastatic renal cell carcinoma. However, there is speculation around a number of newer potentially therapeutic targets, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-10, and adenosine. In this article, we review novel treatments, promising combinations, and consideration in both trial design and clinical application of therapeutics that will influence practice in the future.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2018 Oct 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Thomas Powles, Brian Rini
Thomas Powles, Royal Free Hospital, and Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom; and Brian Rini, Lerner College of Medicine, and Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.