Renal cell cancer after kidney transplantation

This study aims to identify modifiable risk factors for de novo renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after kidney transplantation in a matched-pair approach matching for unmodifiable factors.

One thousand six hundred fifty-five adults who underwent kidney transplantation in the period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2012 were analyzed. Patients with RCC after kidney transplantation were matched in a 1:2 ratio with those without RCC using the indication for transplantation, age at transplantation (± 10 years), recipient sex (male/female), number of received transplants, living organ donor transplantation (yes/no), and time of follow-up in days as matching criteria. The paired t test was used to compare continuous variables and the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical variables. Multivariable conditional logistic regression modeling was used to identify independent risk factors for RCC.

In matched-pair analysis, a total number of 26 incident cases with RCC after kidney transplantation could be matched. Post-transplant RCC was significantly associated with longer durations of pre-transplant hemodialysis (p = 0.007) and post-transplant immunosuppression with cyclosporine (p = 0.029) and/or mycophenolate mofetil (p = 0.020) and with larger proportions of post-transplant time on mycophenolate mofetil (p = 0.046) and/or prednisolone medication (p = 0.042). Multivariable conditional logistic regression modeling revealed a significant risk increasing multiplicative factor interaction between the duration of pre-transplant dialysis (years) and the time of prednisolone usage (percent/100). Cyclosporine A usage and mycophenolate mofetil usage were also revealed as independent, significant risk factors for RCC development.

Longer pre-transplant dialysis, cyclosporine-based protocols and/or intensified immunosuppression with additional mycophenolate mofetil, and larger proportions of time of prednisolone treatment during follow-up increase de novo RCC risk.

Langenbeck's archives of surgery. 2018 Jul 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Dennis Kleine-Döpke, Matthias Oelke, Anke Schwarz, Ysabell Schwager, Frank Lehner, Jürgen Klempnauer, Harald Schrem

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany. ., Department of Urology, St. Antonius Hospital, Gronau, Germany., Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany., Core Facility Quality Management and Health Technology Assessment in Transplantation, Integrated Research and Treatment Facility Transplantation (IFB-Tx), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany., Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.