Mismatch repair deficiency may be common in ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate

Precision oncology entails making treatment decisions based on a tumor's molecular characteristics. For prostate cancer, identifying clinically relevant molecular subgroups is challenging, as molecular profiling is not routine outside of academic centers. Since histologic variants of other cancers correlates with specific genomic alterations, we sought to determine if ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (dPC) - a rare and aggressive histopathologic variant - was associated with any recurrent actionable mutations.

Tumors from 10 consecutive patients with known dPC were sequenced on a targeted next-generation DNA sequencing panel. The median age at diagnosis was 59 years (range, 40-73). Four (40%) patients had metastases upon presentation. Archival tissue from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate tissue samples from nine patients and a biopsy of a metastasis from one patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer were available for analysis. Nine of 10 samples had sufficient material for tumor sequencing. Four (40%) patients' tumors had a mismatch repair (MMR) gene alteration (N = 2, MSH2; N = 1, MSH6; and N = 1, MLH1), of which 3 (75%) had evidence of hypermutation.

Sections of the primary carcinomas of three additional patients with known MMR gene alterations/hypermutation were histologically evaluated; two of these tumors had dPC. MMR mutations associated with hypermutation were common in our cohort of dPC patients. Since hypermutation may predict for response to immune checkpoint blockade, the presence of dPC may be a rapid means to enrich populations for further screening. Given our small sample size, these findings require replication.

Schweizer MT1,2, Cheng HH1,2, Tretiakova MS3, Vakar-Lopez F3, Klemfuss N4, Konnick EQ5, Mostaghel EA1,2, Nelson PS1,4, Yu EY1,2, Montgomery B1,2, True LD3, Pritchard CC5.

1Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
2Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
3Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
4Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
5Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Schweizer+MT+et+al.++Oncotarget+2016%3B+7%3A82504-10.

Oncotarget. 2016 Dec 13;7(50):82504-82510. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.12697.