Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer: focus on metabolic complications

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most effective treatment for this disease. The cornerstone of the treatment of prostate cancer is inhibition of testosterone production which interrupts testosterone-induced growth of the prostate tumor. The dramatic decrease in testosterone levels, however, has several undesirable effects on the metabolic profile and bone metabolism and can also lead to fatigue, loss of libido, gynecomastia, and anemia, provoke vasomotor flushing, and generally affect the quality of life. Due to the long-term survival rates of patients with prostate cancer, treatment-related adverse effects are highly relevant and thus, in each clinical setting, the benefits of ADT must be weighed against treatment-related adverse effects. The current review focuses on the more recently described metabolic complications of androgen deprivation therapy, including obesity, diabetes, lipid alterations, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, it provides practical management recommendations drawn from the available guidelines issued by the American Diabetes Association and American Heart Association.

Hormones (Athens, Greece). 2017 Apr [Epub]

Vasileios Tzortzis, Michael Samarinas, Ioannis Zachos, Athanasios Oeconomou, Louis L Pisters, Alexandra Bargiota

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece., Department of Urology, Division of Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA., Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.