Use of the 4Kscore test to predict the risk of aggressive prostate cancer prior to prostate biopsy: Overall cost savings and improved quality of care to the us healthcare system

The 4Kscore® Test (BioReference Laboratories, Elmwood Park, NJ) is a blood test that accurately determines the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and significantly reduces prostate biopsies and associated overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent cancer. A budget impact model was developed to test the hypothesis that the 4Kscore Test can improve quality of care and deliver cost savings for patients who are suspected of having prostate cancer and would otherwise undergo prostate biopsy under the current standard of care (SOC) in the United States. The direct costs (diagnosis plus treatment) utilized in the model are based on Medicare payment data and were calculated over a 1-year time horizon. The model compares SOC, in which all patients have prostate biopsy, to a "4Kscore strategy," in which the 4Kscore Test is used to guide the decision to biopsy the prostate. A set of one-way sensitivity analyses was conducted to examine the robustness of the findings. Savings of more than $169 million (15.6% of total SOC costs) were realized in the 4Kscore strategy versus SOC ($917 M versus $1,086 M, respectively) in a cohort of 100,000 patients. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the findings are robust. Most cost savings for the 4Kscore strategy were realized in patients who, when managed by SOC, are found to have no prostate cancer or Gleason score 6 pathology. The patients with Gleason score 6 exhibited the greatest benefits from the 4Kscore strategy, avoiding both an unnecessary prostate biopsy and subsequent overtreatment. The 4Kscore Test was shown to significantly reduce costs to the healthcare system while improving patients' quality of care. Providers and their patients suspected of having prostate cancer should consider using the 4Kscore Test prior to proceeding with prostate biopsy.

Reviews in urology. 2017 Jan [Epub]

Jeffrey D Voigt, Yan Dong, Vincent Linder, Stephen Zappala

Medical Device Consultants of Ridgewood, LLCRidgewood, NJ., OPKO DiagnosticsWoburn, MA.