Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Favorable and Aggressive Prostate Cancer

Purpose The association between exposure to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and prostate cancer risk is controversial. The objective was to examine this association through nationwide, population-based registry data. Methods We performed a nested case-control study in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, which includes all 38,570 prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 2009 to 2012, and 192,838 age-matched men free of prostate cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations between TRT and risk of prostate cancer (overall, favorable, and aggressive). Results Two hundred eighty-four patients with prostate cancer (1%) and 1,378 control cases (1%) filled prescriptions for TRT. In multivariable analysis, no association was found between TRT and overall prostate cancer risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.17). However, patients who received TRT had more favorable-risk prostate cancer (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.56) and a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.67). The increase in favorable-risk prostate cancer was already observed within the first year of TRT (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.34), whereas the lower risk of aggressive disease was observed after > 1 year of TRT (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.61). After adjusting for previous biopsy findings as an indicator of diagnostic activity, TRT remained significantly associated with more favorable-risk prostate cancer and lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Conclusion The early increase in favorable-risk prostate cancer among patients who received TRT suggests a detection bias, whereas the decrease in risk of aggressive prostate cancer is a novel finding that warrants further investigation.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2017 Mar 13 [Epub]

Stacy Loeb, Yasin Folkvaljon, Jan-Erik Damber, Joseph Alukal, Mats Lambe, Pär Stattin

Stacy Loeb and Joseph Alukal, New York University, New York, NY; Yasin Folkvaljon, Uppsala University Hospital; Pär Stattin, Uppsala University, Uppsala; Jan-Erik Damber, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Mats Lambe, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; and Pär Stattin, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.