Association of Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Depression in Localized Prostate Cancer

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may contribute to depression, yet several studies have not demonstrated a link. We aimed to determine whether receipt of any ADT or longer duration of ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with an increased risk of depression.

We identified 78,552 men older than age 65 years with stage I to III PCa using the SEER-Medicare-linked database from 1992 to 2006, excluding patients with psychiatric diagnoses within the prior year. Our primary analysis was the association between pharmacologic ADT and the diagnosis of depression or receipt of inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment using Cox proportional hazards regression. Drug data for treatment of depression were not available. Our secondary analysis investigated the association between duration of ADT and each end point.

Overall, 43% of patients (n = 33,882) who received ADT, compared with patients who did not receive ADT, had higher 3-year cumulative incidences of depression (7.1% v 5.2%, respectively), inpatient psychiatric treatment (2.8% v 1.9%, respectively), and outpatient psychiatric treatment (3.4% v 2.5%, respectively; all P < .001). Adjusted Cox analyses demonstrated that patients with ADT had a 23% increased risk of depression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.31), 29% increased risk of inpatient psychiatric treatment (AHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.41), and a nonsignificant 7% increased risk of outpatient psychiatric treatment (AHR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.17) compared with patients without ADT. The risk of depression increased with duration of ADT, from 12% with ≤ 6 months of treatment, 26% with 7 to 11 months of treatment, to 37% with ≥ 12 months of treatment (P trend < .001). A similar duration effect was seen for inpatient (P trend < .001) and outpatient psychiatric treatment (P trend < .001).

Pharmacologic ADT increased the risk of depression and inpatient psychiatric treatment in this large study of elderly men with localized PCa. This risk increased with longer duration of ADT. The possible psychiatric effects of ADT should be recognized by physicians and discussed with patients before initiating treatment.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2016 Apr 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Kathryn T Dinh, Gally Reznor, Vinayak Muralidhar, Brandon A Mahal, Michelle D Nezolosky, Toni K Choueiri, Karen E Hoffman, Jim C Hu, Christopher J Sweeney, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Paul L Nguyen

Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Kathryn T. Dinh, Vinayak Muralidhar, and Brandon A. Mahal, Harvard Medical School; Gally Reznor, Brandon A. Mahal, Michelle D. Nezolosky, Toni K. Choueiri, Christopher J. Sweeney, and Paul L. Nguyen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Quoc-Dien Trinh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Karen E. Hoffman, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Jim C. Hu, Weill Cornell Medical College, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY. .

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