BACKGROUND: Patients with lymph node (LN)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) at radical prostatectomy (RP) face a high risk of cancer recurrence.
Nevertheless, recurrence patterns of LN-positive PCa and their prognostic significance remain understudied in the literature.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze a large single-institution series with long-term follow-up to elucidate the various clinical recurrence patterns of LN-positive PCa and their association with oncologic outcomes.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Years 1987-2012 of a prospectively maintained institutional RP registry were queried for men with LN-positive PCa at RP. Clinical recurrences were categorized as local, nodal, skeletal, or visceral.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: In addition to descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier analysis, univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to predict recurrence and to quantify the impact of recurrence patterns on cancer-specific mortality (CSM).
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Data from 1011 men with LN-positive PCa at RP were analyzed with 17.6 yr of median follow-up. The 15-yr clinical recurrence rate was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-35%) for all patients and 52.2% (95% CI, 47.3-57.1%) for patients with biochemical recurrence. The solitary locations were skeletal (n=94, 55%), nodal (n=59, 34%), local soft tissue (n=29, 17%), and visceral (n=8, 5%). Significant multivariable predictors of recurrence were Gleason score 8-10, number of positive nodes, pathologic Gleason score, and more recent year of surgery. The 15-yr CSM after clinical recurrence was 80%, with a mean overall survival of 30 mo after recurrence. On multivariable analysis, recurrences after 5 yr from RP (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.05), multiple recurrences (HR: 1.97), skeletal (HR: 3.13), and visceral metastases (HR: 7.43) were independently associated with CSM (all p< 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrences after RP for LN-positive PCa are heterogeneous in terms of time from RP, location, and number of concomitant lesions.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that impact of recurrence patterns on cancer-specific mortality varies significantly and allows these patients to be stratified for purposes of prognostication, follow-up, and therapy.
Moschini M, Sharma V, Zattoni F, Quevedo JF, Davis BJ, Kwon E, Karnes RJ. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Reference: Eur Urol. 2015 Apr 9. pii: S0302-2838(15)00256-0.