INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and MRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion-guided biopsy (FB) for monitoring patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS).
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MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing mp-MRI and FB of target lesions identified on mp-MRI between August 2007 and August 2014 were reviewed. Patients meeting AS criteria (Clinical stage T1c, Gleason grade≤ 6, prostate-specific antigen density≤ 0.15, tumor involving≤ 2 cores, and≤ 50% involvement of any single core) based on extended sextant 12-core TRUS biopsy (systematic biopsy [SB]) were included. They were followed with subsequent 12-core biopsy as well as mp-MRI and MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy at follow-up visits until Gleason score progression (Gleason≥7 in either 12-core or MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy). We evaluated whether progression seen on mp-MRI (defined as an increase in suspicion level, largest lesion diameter, or number of lesions) was predictive of Gleason score progression.
RESULTS: Of 152 patients meeting AS criteria on initial SB (mean age of 61.4 years and mean prostate-specific antigen level of 5.26ng/ml), 34 (22.4%) had Gleason score≥7 on confirmatory SB/FB. Of the 118 remaining patients, 58 chose AS and had at least 1 subsequent mp-MRI with SB/FB (median follow-up = 16.1 months). Gleason progression was subsequently documented in 17 (29%) of these men, in all cases to Gleason 3+4. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of mp-MRI for Gleason progression was 53% (95% CI: 28%-77%) and 80% (95% CI: 65%-91%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of mp-MRI for increase in Gleason were also 53% and 80%, respectively. The number needed to biopsy to detect 1 Gleason progression was 8.74 for SB vs. 2.9 for FB.
CONCLUSIONS: Stable findings on mp-MRI are associated with Gleason score stability. mp-MRI appears promising as a useful aid for reducing the number of biopsies in the management of patients on AS. A prospective evaluation of mp-MRI as a screen to reduce biopsies in the follow-up of men on AS appears warranted.
Walton Diaz A, Shakir NA, George AK, Rais-Bahrami S, Turkbey B, Rothwax JT, Stamatakis L, Hong CW, Siddiqui MM, Okoro C, Raskolnikov D, Su D, Shih J, Han H, Parnes HL, Merino MJ, Simon RM, Wood BJ, Choyke PL, Pinto PA. Are you the author?
Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Center for Interventional Oncology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Biometric Research Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Reference: Urol Oncol. 2015 Mar 5. pii: S1078-1439(15)00057-5.