Additional analysis of the secondary end point of biochemical recurrence rate in a phase 3 trial (CS21) comparing degarelix 80 mg versus leuprolide in prostate cancer patients segmented by baseline characteristics - Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression may predict overall survival in prostate cancer patients.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the activity of degarelix and leuprolide regarding PSA recurrence-free survival.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Phase 3, 1-yr, multicentre, randomised, open-label trial comparing the efficacy and safety of degarelix at 240 mg for 1 mo, and then 80 mg monthly (240/80 mg); degarelix at 240 mg for 1 mo, and then 160 mg monthly; and leuprolide at 7.5 mg/mo. Overall, 610 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer (all stages), for whom androgen deprivation therapy was indicated, were included. The primary end point of this trial has been reported previously; the protocolled and exploratory subgroup analyses reported in this paper focus on degarelix at 240/80 mg (dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Evaluation Association for the treatment of patients with hormone-naive advanced prostate cancer).

MEASUREMENTS: PSA progression-free survival (two consecutive increases in PSA of 50% compared with nadir and ≥ 5 ng/ml on two consecutive measurements at least 2 wk apart or death) and change in PSA were reviewed. Effects of baseline disease stage (localised, locally advanced, and metastatic) and PSA level (<10, 10-20, >20-50, and >50 ng/ml) were analysed.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Patients receiving degarelix showed a significantly lower risk of PSA progression or death compared with leuprolide (p=0.05). PSA recurrences occurred mainly in patients with advanced disease and exclusively in those with baseline PSA >20 ng/ml. Patients with PSA >20 ng/ml had a significantly longer time to PSA recurrence with degarelix (p=0.04). The relatively low number of patients in each subgroup is a limitation of this study.

CONCLUSIONS: These results generate the hypothesis that degarelix at 240/80 mg offers improved PSA control compared with leuprolide. PSA recurrences occurred almost exclusively in patients with metastatic prostate cancer or high baseline PSA during this 1-yr study. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

Written by:
Tombal B, Miller K, Boccon-Gibod L, Schröder F, Shore N, Crawford ED, Moul J, Jensen JK, Kold Olesen T, Persson BE   Are you the author?
Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc/Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Reference: Eur Urol. 2010 May;57(5):836-42.
doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2009.11.029

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 19962227


Newsletter subscription

Free Daily and Weekly newsletters offered by content of interest

The fields of GU Oncology and Urology are rapidly advancing. Sign up today for articles, videos, conference highlights and abstracts from peer-review publications by disease and condition delivered to your inbox and read on the go.