Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Study Type - Prognosis (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b.
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Patients with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy often develop subsequent metastases. However, the natural history of metastatic progression in men who have not received subsequent therapies before developing metastases has been understudied. Here, we describe the largest known cohort of men with PSA-recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy who have not received additional treatments before metastasis. We characterize metastatic risk based on clinical variables, and we show that Gleason score and PSA doubling time are the strongest predictors of metastasis-free survival. We present tables stratifying metastatic risk by these two variables.
To describe metastasis-free survival (MFS) in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence following radical prostatectomy, and to define clinical prognostic factors modifying metastatic risk.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 450 men treated with prostatectomy at a tertiary hospital between July 1981 and July 2010 who developed PSA recurrence (≥0.2 ng/mL) and never received adjuvant or salvage therapy before the development of metastatic disease. We estimated MFS using the Kaplan-Meier method, and investigated factors influencing the risk of metastasis using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Median follow-up after prostatectomy was 8.0 years, and after biochemical recurrence was 4.0 years. At last follow-up, 134 of 450 patients (29.8%) had developed metastases, while median MFS was 10.0 years. Using multivariable regressions, two variables emerged as independently predictive of MFS: PSA doubling time (< 3.0 vs 3.0-8.9 vs 9.0-14.9 vs ≥15.0 months) and Gleason score (≤ 6 vs 7 vs 8-10). Using these stratifications of Gleason score and PSA doubling time, tables were constructed to predict median, 5- and 10-year MFS after PSA recurrence. In different patient subsets, median MFS ranged from 1 to 15 years.
In men undergoing prostatectomy, MFS after PSA recurrence is variable and is most strongly influenced by PSA doubling time and Gleason score. These parameters serve to stratify men into different risk groups with respect to metastatic progression. Our findings may provide the background for appropriate selection of patients, treatments and endpoints for clinical trials.
Antonarakis ES, Feng Z, Trock BJ, Humphreys EB, Carducci MA, Partin AW, Walsh PC, Eisenberger MA. Are you the author?
Reference: BJU Int. 2011 Jul 20. Epub ahead of print.