New target therapies in prostate cancer: from radioligand therapy, to PARP-inhibitors and immunotherapy.

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a significant global health challenge, particularly in its advanced stages. Despite progress in early detection and treatment, PCa is the second most common cancer diagnosis among men. This review aims to provide an overview of current therapeutic approaches and innovations in PCa management, focusing on the latest advancements and ongoing challenges. We conducted a narrative review of clinical trials and research studies, focusing on PARP inhibitors (PARPis), phosphoinositide 3 kinase-protein kinase B inhibitors, immunotherapy, and radioligand therapies (RLTs). Data was sourced from major clinical trial databases and peer-reviewed journals. Androgen deprivation therapy and androgen-receptor pathway inhibitors remain foundational in managing castration-sensitive and early-stage castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). PARPi's, such as olaparib and rucaparib, have emerged as vital treatments for metastatic CRPC with homologous recombination repair gene mutations, highlighting the importance of personalized medicine. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown clinical benefit limited to specific subgroups of PCa, demonstrating significant improvement in efficacy in patients with microsatellite instability/mismatch repair or cyclin-dependent kinase 12 alteration, highlighting the importance of focusing ongoing research on identifying and characterizing these subgroups to maximize the clinical benefits of ICIs. RLTs have shown effectiveness in treating mCRPC. Different alpha emitters (like [225Ac]PSMA) and beta emitters compounds (like [177Lu]PSMA) impact treatment differently due to their energy transfer characteristics. Clinical trials like VISION and TheraP have demonstrated positive outcomes with RLT, particularly [177Lu]PSMA-617, leading to FDA approval. Ongoing trials and future perspectives explore the potential of [225Ac]PSMA, aiming to improve outcomes for patients with mCRPC. The landscape of PCa treatment is evolving, with significant advancements in both established and novel therapies. The combination of hormonal therapies, chemotherapy, PARPis, immunotherapy, and RLTs, guided by genetic and molecular insights, opens new possibilities for personalized treatment.

The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of.... 2024 Jun [Epub]

Francesco Ceci, Lighea S AirĂ² Farulla, Elena Bonatto, Laura Evangelista, Marta Aliprandi, Luigi G Cecchi, Francesco Mattana, Alessandro Bertocchi, Fabio DE Vincenzo, Matteo Perrino, Nadia Cordua, Federica Borea, Paolo A Zucali

Division of Nuclear Medicine, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy., Division of Nuclear Medicine, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy - ., Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.