An integrated radiology-pathology machine learning classifier for outcome prediction following radical prostatectomy: Preliminary findings.

To evaluate the added benefit of integrating features from pre-treatment MRI (radiomics) and digitized post-surgical pathology slides (pathomics) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients for prognosticating outcomes post radical-prostatectomy (RP) including a) rising prostate specific antigen (PSA), and b) extraprostatic-extension (EPE).

Multi-institutional data (N = 58) of PCa patients who underwent pre-treatment 3-T MRI prior to RP were included in this retrospective study. Radiomic and pathomic features were extracted from PCa regions on MRI and RP specimens delineated by expert clinicians. On training set (D1, N = 44), Cox Proportional-Hazards models MR, MP and MRaP were trained using radiomics, pathomics, and their combination, respectively, to prognosticate rising PSA (PSA > 0.03 ng/mL). Top features from MRaP were used to train a model to predict EPE on D1 and test on external dataset (D2, N = 14). C-index, Kalplan-Meier curves were used for survival analysis, and area under ROC (AUC) was used for EPE. MRaP was compared with the existing post-treatment risk-calculator, CAPRA (MC).

Patients had median follow-up of 34 months. MRaP (c-index = 0.685 ± 0.05) significantly outperformed MR (c-index = 0.646 ± 0.05), MP (c-index = 0.631 ± 0.06) and MC (c-index = 0.601 ± 0.071) (p < 0.0001). Cross-validated Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant separation among risk groups for rising PSA for MRaP (p < 0.005, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 11.36) as compared to MR (p = 0.64, HR = 1.33), MP (p = 0.19, HR = 2.82) and MC (p = 0.10, HR = 3.05). Integrated radio-pathomic model MRaP (AUC = 0.80) outperformed MR (AUC = 0.57) and MP (AUC = 0.76) in predicting EPE on external-data (D2).

Results from this preliminary study suggest that a combination of radiomic and pathomic features can better predict post-surgical outcomes (rising PSA and EPE) compared to either of them individually as well as extant prognostic nomogram (CAPRA).

Heliyon. 2024 Apr 15*** epublish ***

Amogh Hiremath, Germán Corredor, Lin Li, Patrick Leo, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Robin Elliott, Andrei Purysko, Rakesh Shiradkar, Anant Madabhushi

Picture Health, Cleveland, OH, USA., Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA., Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA., Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA., Department of Pathology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.