Early response monitoring during [177Lu]Lu-PSMA I&T therapy with quantitated SPECT/CT predicts overall survival of mCRPC patients: subgroup analysis of a Swiss-wide prospective registry study.

To assess early tumor response with quantitated SPECT/CT and to correlate it with clinical outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with 177Lutetium-PSMA I&T therapy.

Single-center, observational study, part of the prospective Swiss national cancer registry study investigating the safety and efficacy of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA I&T (EKNZ: 2021-01271) in mCRPC patients treated with at least two cycles of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA I&T 6-weekly. After the first and second cycle quantitated SPECT/CT (Symbia Intevo, Siemens) was acquired 48 h after injection (three fields of view from head to thigh, 5 s/frame) and reconstructed using xQuant® (48i, 1 s, 10-mm Gauss). Image analysis: The PSMA-positive total tumor volumes (TTV) were semi-automatically delineated using a SUV threshold of 3 with MIMencore® (version 7.1.3, Medical Image Merge Software Inc.). Changes in TTV, highest tumor SUVmax, and total tumor SUVmean between cycles 1 and 2 were calculated and grouped into a) stable or decrease and b) increase. Serum PSA levels were assessed at each therapy cycle and at follow-up until progression or death. Changes in TTV, PSA, SUVmax, and SUVmean were correlated with PSA-progression-free survival (PSA-PFS) and the overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier methodology (log-rank test).

Between 07/2020 and 04/2022, 111 patients were screened and 73 finally included in the data analysis. The median follow-up was 8.9 months (range 1.4-26.6 months). Stable or decreased TTV at cycle 2 was associated with longer OS (hazard ratio (HR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09-0.86, p < 0.01). Similar, stable, or decreased PSA was associated with longer OS (HR 0.21; CI 0.07-0.62, p < 0.01) and PSA-PFS (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.16-0.72, p < 0.01). Combining TTV and PSA will result in an augmented prognostic value for OS (HR 0.09; CI 0.01-0.63; p < 0.01) and for PSA-PFS (HR 0.11; CI 0.02-0.68; p < 0.01). A reduction of SUVmax or SUVmean was not prognostically relevant, neither for OS (p 0.88 and 0.7) nor for PSA-PFS (p 0.73 and 0.62, respectively).

Six weeks after initiating [177Lu]Lu-PSMA I&T, TTV and serum PSA appear to be good prognosticators for OS. Combined together, TTV + PSA change demonstrates augmented prognostic value and can better predict PSA-PFS. Larger studies using TTV change prospectively as an early-response biomarker are warranted for implementing management change towards a more personalized clinical practice.

European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2023 Dec 01 [Epub ahead of print]

Moritz C Neubauer, Guillaume P Nicolas, Andreas Bauman, Melpomeni Fani, Egbert Nitzsche, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Flavio Forrer, Cyril Rentsch, Frank Stenner, Arnoud Templeton, Niklaus Schäfer, Damian Wild, Alin Chirindel, all investigators on behalf of the SSNM Therapy Working Group

Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4051, Basel, Switzerland. ., Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4051, Basel, Switzerland., Nuclear Medicine and PET-Center, Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland., Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland., Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland., Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland., Oncology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland., Oncology, St. Claraspital, Basel, Switzerland., Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.