Intermittent Radioligand Therapy with 177Lu-PSMA-617 for Oligometastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (177Lu-PSMA-RLT) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) currently consists of 4-6 cycles of 6.0-7.4 GBq of 177Lu-PSMA-617 each every 6-8 weeks. While safety and efficacy could be demonstrated in larger prospective trials irrespective of the tumor burden at 177Lu-PSMA RLT initiation, increased renal absorbed doses due to a reduced tumor sink effect in early responding, oligometastatic mCRPC patients pose difficulties. Response-adapted, dose distributing, intermittent treatment with up to six cycles has not been routinely performed, due to concerns about the potential loss of disease control. Treatment was discontinued in 19 early-responding patients with oligometastatic tumor burden after two (IQR 2-3) cycles of 177Lu-PSMA-RLT and 6.5 ± 0.7 GBq per cycle and resumed upon 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT-based progression (according to the PCWG3 criteria). Subsequent treatment breaks were imposed if a PSMA-based imaging response could be achieved. A total of five (IQR 3-6) cycles reaching a cumulative activity of 32 ± 11 GBq were applied. A routine blood work-up including blood counts and liver and renal function was measured throughout the 177Lu-PSMA-RLT and follow-up to grade toxicity according to CTCAE v5.0 criteria. Survival outcome was calculated based on the Kaplan-Meier method. In total, treatment-free periods of 9 (IQR 6-17) cumulative months and the application of 177Lu-PSMA-RLT cycles over 16 (IQR 9-22) months could be achieved. Fifteen (84%) patients responded to subsequent cycles after the first treatment break and in 7/19 (37%) patients, intermittent 177Lu-PSMA-RLT consisted of ≥2 treatment breaks. The median PFS was 27 months (95% CI: 23-31) and overall survival was 45 months (95% CI: 28-62). No grade ≥3 hematological or renal toxicities could be observed during the 45 ± 21 months of follow-up. The cumulative mean renal absorbed dose was 16.7 ± 8.3 Gy and 0.53 ± 0.21 Gy/GBq. Intermittent radioligand therapy with 177Lu-PSMA-617 is feasible in early-responding patients with oligometastatic disease. A late onset of progression after subsequent cycles and the absence of significant toxicity warrants further investigation of the concept of intermittent treatment in selected patients.

Cancers. 2023 Sep 17*** epublish ***

Nicolai Mader, Christina Schoeler, Niloufar Pezeshkpour, Konrad Klimek, Daniel Groener, Christian Happel, Nikolaos Tselis, Philipp Mandel, Frank Gr├╝nwald, Amir Sabet

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.