Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic value of end-of-treatment prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT (PSMA-PET) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with 177Lu-PSMA radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT).
Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study. mCRPC patients who underwent PSMA-RLT with available baseline PSMA-PET (bPET) and end-of-treatment PSMA-PET (ePET) within 6 mo of the last PSMA-RLT cycle were eligible. Overall survival (OS) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression status at the time of ePET (by Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 3 criteria) were collected. PSMA-PET tumor segmentation was performed to obtain whole-body PSMA tumor volume (PSMA-VOL) and define progressive (≥20% increase) versus nonprogressive disease. Pairs of bPET and ePET were interpreted for appearance of new lesions. Response Evaluation Criteria in PSMA-PET/CT (RECIP) 1.0 were also applied to define progressive versus nonprogressive disease. The associations between changes in PSMA-VOL, new lesions, RECIP 1.0, and PSA progression status at the time of ePET with OS were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Twenty mCRPC patients were included. The median number of treatment cycles was 3.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-4). The median time between bPET and cycle 1 of PSMA-RLT was 1.0 mo (IQR, 0.7-1.8 mo). The median time between the last cycle of PSMA-RLT and ePET was 1.9 mo (IQR, 1.2-3.5 mo). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) had died at the last follow-up. The median follow-up time from ePET for survivors was 31.2 mo (IQR, 6.8-40.7 mo). The median OS from ePET was 11.4 mo (IQR, 6.8-30.7 mo). Patients with new lesions on ePET had shorter OS than those without new lesions (median OS, 10.7 mo [95% CI, 9.2-12.2] vs. not reached; P = 0.002). Patients with progressive PSMA-VOL had shorter OS than those with nonprogressive PSMA-VOL (median OS, 10.7 mo [95% CI: 9.7-11.7 mo] vs. not reached; P = 0.007). Patients with progressive RECIP had shorter OS than those with nonprogressive RECIP (median OS, 10.7 mo [95% CI, 9.7-11.7 mo] vs. not reached; P = 0.007). PSA progression at the time of ePET was associated with shorter OS (median, 10.9 mo [95% CI, 9.4-12.4 mo] vs. not reached; P = 0.028). Conclusion: In this retrospective study of 20 mCRPC patients treated with PSMA-RLT, progression on ePET by the appearance of new lesions, changes in PSMA-VOL, and RECIP 1.0 was prognostic for OS. Validation in larger, prospective multicentric clinical trials is warranted.
Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2023 Sep 07 [Epub ahead of print]
Vishnu Murthy, Andrei Gafita, Pan Thin, Kathleen Nguyen, Tristan Grogan, John Shen, Alexandra Drakaki, Matthew Rettig, Johannes Czernin, Jeremie Calais
Ahmanson Translational Theranostics Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California., Ahmanson Translational Theranostics Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; ., Department of Medicine Statistics Core, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; and., Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.