Prostate-specific antigen response and clinical progression-free survival in Black and White men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with enzalutamide in a real-world setting.

In the United States, Black men have a higher incidence of prostate cancer (PC)-related mortality than men of other races. Several real-world studies in advanced PC suggest, however, that Black men respond better to novel hormonal therapies than White men. Data on treatment responses to enzalutamide by race are limited. We assessed real-world prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and clinical progression-free survival (cPFS) of Black vs. White men with chemotherapy-naïve PC treated with enzalutamide.

This retrospective cohort study included patients with PC who initiated enzalutamide treatment from 2014 to 2018 in the IntrinsiQ Specialty Solutions™ database, a collection of electronic medical records from community urology practices. Index date was the date of the first prescription for enzalutamide, used as a proxy for metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC). Patients who had undergone chemotherapy and/or abiraterone therapy were excluded. Kaplan-Meier and Cox models adjusted for baseline characteristics were used to estimate PSA response and cPFS by race.

The study included 214 Black and 1332 White men with chemotherapy-naïve PC presumed to have mCRPC based on the enzalutamide indication during the study period. Black men were younger and had higher baseline median PSA levels than White men. Enzalutamide therapy duration, follow-up time, and number of post-index PSA tests were similar between races. In multivariable analyses, the risk of patients achieving a ≥ 50% PSA decline was similar, whereas a numerically higher trend of ≥90% PSA decline was observed in Black men (HR 1.23; 95% CI 0.93-1.62 [P = 0.14]). In the multivariable analysis, Black men had significantly better cPFS (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98 [P = 0.03]).

Black and White men with presumed chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC had similar PSA responses when treated with enzalutamide, but Black men had better cPFS than White men. Further research is warranted to validate these findings.

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2022 Dec 14 [Epub ahead of print]

Stephen J Freedland, Agnes Hong, Nader El-Chaar, Sharanya Murty, Krishnan Ramaswamy, Anna D Coutinho, David Nimke, Alicia K Morgans

Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ., Astellas Pharma Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA., Xcenda, Carrollton, TX, USA., Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA., Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.