Assessing Response to [177Lu]PSMA Radioligand Therapy using modified PSMA PET Progression Criteria.

Introduction: Positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) plays a key role in staging of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Moreover, it is not only used for the assessment of adequate PSMA expression of PCa cells before PSMA-targeting radioligand therapy (PSMA RLT) but also for re-staging during the course of therapy to evaluate response to treatment. Whereas no established criteria exist for systematic response evaluation so far, recently proposed PSMA PET Progression (PPP) criteria might fill this gap. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of PPP criteria in patients undergoing PSMA RLT and their prognostic implications. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, PSMA PET/CT scans of 46 patients acquired before and after completion of PSMA RLT were analyzed separately by two readers using modified PPP criteria. After interobserver agreement assessment, consensus results (progressive vs. non-progressive disease) were compared in a multivariate cox regression model (endpoint overall survival, OS). Results: Interobserver agreement on modified PPP criteria was substantial (Cohens κ = 0.73) with a concordance in 87% of patients. Median OS of all patients after PSMA RLT (n = 46) was 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8 - 10.2] months. Progression according to modified PPP criteria was found in 32 patients and was a significant (p ≤0.001) prognostic marker for OS with a hazard ratio of 15.5 [95% CI 3.4 - 70.2]. Conclusion: Response assessment in patients undergoing PSMA RLT using modified PPP criteria are reproducible and highly prognostic for OS. Modified PPP criteria should be validated in future prospective trials.

Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2021 Mar 31 [Epub ahead of print]

Kerstin Michalski, Claudius Klein, Tonio Brueggemann, Philipp T Meyer, Cordula Annette Jilg, Juri Ruf

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany, Germany., Department of Urology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.