68Ga-PSMA-11 Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Primary Lymph Node Staging Before Radical Prostatectomy: Central Review of Imaging and Comparison with Histopathology of Extended Lymphadenectomy.

Results from prospective trials have shown higher accuracy of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in detection of lymph node metastasis (LNM) compared to conventional imaging.

To evaluate the accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for LNM detection in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).

Between June 2014 and November 2020, 96 patients with 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for primary staging underwent RP and extended PLND.

The results from 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT were compared with histologic data from primary PLND in 96 patients. All 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scans were centrally reviewed.

Of 96 patients, 15.6% (n = 15) harbored LNMs. The median prostate-specific antigen at 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 8.0 ng/ml (interquartile range 5.5-11.7). The majority of patients had intermediate- (52.1%) or high-risk disease (41.7%). Biopsy grade group 4 and 5 was present in 22.9% and 15.6%, respectively. The 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scans identified eight of 15 patients (53.3%) as LN-positive (true positive). The calculated per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the detection of LNM were 53.3%, 98.8%, 88.9%, 92.0%, and 91.7%, respectively. The per-patient sensitivity and specificity in the detection of LNMs larger than 2 mm were 61.5% and 98.8%, respectively. The main limitation is the retrospective design of the study.

68Ga-PSMA PET/CT is accurate in lymph node staging and the results support its use for primary staging of prostate cancer.

We compared prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings with histopathology results after extended lymph node dissection and showed that it is accurate in detecting lymph node metastases. Our results support the use of PSMA PET/CT for primary staging of prostate cancer.

European urology focus. 2021 Jan 25 [Epub ahead of print]

Tarik Esen, Okan Falay, Kayhan Tarim, Ayse Armutlu, Ersin Koseoglu, Mert Kilic, Hülya Seymen, Ahmet Furkan Sarikaya, Murat Can Kiremit, Mevlana Derya Balbay, Abdullah Erdem Canda, Dilek Ertoy Baydar, Yakup Kordan, Mehmet Onur Demirkol, Derya Tilki

Department of Urology, Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: ., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey., Department of Urology, Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey., Department of Pathology, Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey., Department of Urology, Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.