Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among Caucasian males over the age of 60 and is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity and clinical behavior, ranging from decades of indolence to highly lethal disease. Despite the significant progress in PCa systemic therapy, therapeutic response is usually transient, and invasive disease is associated with high mortality rates. Immunotherapy has emerged as an efficacious and non-toxic treatment alternative that perfectly fits the rationale of precision medicine, as it aims to treat patients on the basis of patient-specific, immune-targeted molecular traits, so as to achieve the maximum clinical benefit. Antibodies acting as immune checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines entailing tumor-specific antigens seem to be the most promising immunotherapeutic strategies in offering a significant survival advantage. Even though patients with localized disease and favorable prognostic characteristics seem to be the ones that markedly benefit from such interventions, there is substantial evidence to suggest that the survival benefit may also be extended to patients with more advanced disease. The identification of biomarkers that can be immunologically targeted in patients with disease progression is potentially amenable in this process and in achieving significant advances in the decision for precision treatment of PCa.
Cancers. 2021 Jan 06*** epublish ***
Maria Adamaki, Vassilios Zoumpourlis
Biomedical Applications Unit, Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, 11635 Athens, Greece.